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Exotic Objects in Deep Outer Space

Posted on June 17, 2012 at 5:05 AM

The White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, Black Holes and Supernovae are among the Exotic Objects in Deep Outer Space, it help us understand the Life and Death of Stars.

Birthplace of Stars. Astronomers believe that molecular clouds of gas located primarily in the spiral arms of Galaxies, is where the Stars are born. Dense regions in the clouds of gas collapse and form "protostars". The gravitational energy of the collapsing star is the source of its energy before the star contracts enough that its central core can burn hydrogen to helium; it becomes a "main sequence" star like our Sun. The more massive a main sequence star, the brighter and bluer it is.

Death of an "Ordinary" Star. Once a star exhausts its core hydrogen supply, the star becomes redder, larger, and more luminous: it becomes a red giant star. The core of the star collapses under gravity's pull until it reaches a high enough density to start burning helium to carbon. Eventually, the Sun will lose all of the mass in its envelope and leave behind a hot core of carbon embedded in a nebula of expelled gas. Radiation from this hot core will ionize the nebula then the carbon core will eventually cool and become a White Dwarf, the dense dim remnant of a once bright star.

Death of a Massive Star (Supernova). When a star ten times more massive than Sun, it exhaust the helium in the core. The carbon core continues to burn carbon to oxygen, neon, silicon, sulfur and finally to iron. Without any nuclear source of heat to balance the gravity, the iron core collapses until it reaches nuclear densities which resists further collapse causing the infalling matter to bounce and produces a Supernova explosion that inject carbon, oxygen, silicon and other heavy elements up to iron into interstellar space that make life possible. The structure resulting from the explosion bounded by an expanding shock wave is called a Supernova Remnant. The star that exploded as a supernova is referred to as the supernova's progenitor star. 1) If the progenitor star's mass is around ten times the mass of the Sun, the core will cool to form a Neutron star. Neutron stars are potentially detectable as "pulsars", powerful beacons of radio emission. 2) If the progenitor mass is larger, then the resultant core is so heavy that not even nuclear forces can resist the pull of gravity and the core collapses to form a Black Hole. The material flowing onto the neutron star or black hole will produce a strong X-ray source that is called an X-ray binary. A quasar occurs when a black hole consumes all the gas surrounding it. (Source: NASA)

Wormhole is originally known as Einstein-Rosen bridges, hypothetical realization of general relativity that allows the existence of tunnel shortcuts connecting distant regions of space-time. If a Black hole can form from the gravitational collapse of massive star through an event horizon (surrounding the black hole defined as the point of no return) in the future from Supernova, then the reverse process of an exploding White hole; matter emerging from an event horizon in the past is also possible. A white hole is a region of space-time which matter and light may escape but cannot be entered from the outside. It is the reverse of a black hole, which nothing, including light, may escape but can be entered from the outside. "From that it follows that our universe could have itself formed from inside a black hole existing inside another universe", stated by theoretical physicist, Dr. Nikodem Poplawski of Indiana University. 'Space itself is expanding, carrying galaxies with it, like spots on an inflating balloon', a common analogy explained from the prevailing cosmological model of the BIG BANG theory.

Back in Time. The deeper we look into space is like looking further back into the past. The light we see from a star 1.5 million light years away on the Andromeda galaxy, the nearest neighbor of our Milkyway galaxy was emitted about 100,000 years ago traveling at speed of light approximately 300,000 km/sec. The relationship between mass and lifetime enables astronomers to put a lower limit on the age of the universe. New particles and antiparticles were created right after the Big Bang, for each billion of antiparticles there was a billion plus one matter particles and then annihilated in pairs through successive collisions back into energy as the Universe Expanded. The thermal (electromagnetic) radiation left-over after the annihilations is called the 'Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation' and fills the space between stars and galaxies uniformly, almost exactly on the same direction. Without excess of matter over antimatter, the universe would be an empty space, consumed by light with no stars, our planet earth and others planets, and mankind. Dark matter is a hypothetical particle called the weakly interacting massive particle, or WIMP plays a central role in of structure formation and galaxy evolution, and is a type of matter with high-energy signatures that do not emit or absorb light which can not be seen through an ordinary telescope in the background. If the electrons, protons and neutrons which make our world then, their twins, positrons, antiprotons and antineutrons respectively were also created. New evidence that a sea of Cosmic Neutrinos electrically neutral remnant of the early universe - its oldest light almost weightless sub-atomic particles pass through you every second at nearly the speed of light. A block of lead (radiation-proof material) the size of our entire solar system wouldn’t even come close to stopping a cosmic neutrino,” said science team member Eiichiro Komatsu of the University of Texas at Austin.

NASA's NuSTAR Mission Begins. On Wednesday, 13th June 2012 at 09:12 AM PDT, confirmation of the successful deployment of NuSTAR's solar arrays in space was received. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) will spend at least two years surveying high-energy X-rays more closely with its spatial and spectral resolution to the previously poorly explored hard X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. NuSTAR will open a new window on the universe and will provide complementary data to NASA's larger missions, including Fermi, Chandra, Hubble and Spitzer." which detects lower-energy X-rays, will help solve fundamental cosmic mysteries. The expected result is an orbiting observatory that enables astronomers to see the universe in an additional band of light, advancing our understanding. "NuSTAR will help us find the most elusive and most energetic black holes, to help us understand the structure of the universe," said Fiona Harrison, the mission's principal investigator at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

This blog post is to commemorate on reaching the portal of living in an extraordinary time in this information age from 40 years of search for scientific solution of suppose to be a myth on perceiving bizarre large but random concentric dark spots that sometime appeared on our ceilings, walls and open spaces in our home at the age of 12-13. Local elder folks commented that it could be a gateway to hell but to my dad assumption, it could be somewhat a reflection of a gateway to another world. So far, the viable explanation cannot be found in the old house as it was sold out and rebuilt by the new owners but perhaps the answer to such experience lies beyond the Deep Outer Space; a part of the Infinite Dimensional Set Theory.

Albert Einstein, went on to say that "Knowledge is limited, Imagination encircles the world." Means, that Imagination is more important than Knowledge. Nature has the ability to throw us the biggest surprises, so expect dramatic twists and unexpected turns; many before you have dreamed up mind–blowing theories and crazy concepts. Some of these have prevailed against the tests of time and armies of knowledgeable critics – thus far. Someone, sometime, somewhere, may succeed in completing these unfinished mysteries, or even rewrite the chapters entirely. The book is by no means finished. (Source: CERN)

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